This high-water mark in history I was only vaguely familiar with. Until now!
Thanks to the excellent Internet web site isegoria.net and the original article as seen at Logarithmic History:
"No Longer Tribal, Not Really Civilized"
"In his Logarithmic History, Doug Jones briefly addresses empires and barbarians"
"The fall of Rome involved the disintegration of the Roman state; the collapse of long-distance trade; the disappearance of mass-produced pottery, coinage, and monumental architecture over large areas; declining literacy among commoners and elites; great insecurity of life and property, and demographic collapse . . . In the West, the nadir was perhaps the tenth century. We might set the turning point at the battle of Lechfeld (955): a last set of invaders off the steppes, the Magyars, was defeated by the Emperor Otto, and then adopted Christianity, gave up nomadic marauding, and settled down as feudal lords in Hungary."
Nadir as meaning the lowest possible point. The Dark Ages. Those words as "disintegration", "collapse", "disappearance", "decline", most evocative of events as they occurred at the time.
Click on image for a larger view. Again, I was vaguely aware of Magyar incursions into western Europe but not as to the extent that such raids occurred over such a prolonged period. NOTE that even after Lechfeld II raids continued but more limited [?] in scale. That area in pink roughly designates the Hungarian Plain.
Lechfeld the site of two battles: Lechfeld I (910), Lechfeld II (955).
"The Battle of Lechfeld (10 August 955) was a decisive victory for Otto I the Great, King of the Germans, over the Hungarian Harka Bulcsú and the chieftains Lél (Lehel) and Súr. It is often seen as the defining event in the repulsion of Hungarians incursions into Western Europe."
With terms from that point forward the Hungarian [Magyar] now European. Just behave yourselves!! And all praise to King Otto.
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