Friday, February 15, 2019

B & F.

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B and F = Bridge and fort.

I recommend highly and without qualification or reservation these two short You Tube video.

Roman engineering techniques highly advanced for the time. Only the Chinese military during the same historical period was as good [if not better]?

Roman bridges, roads, forts, etc. A show of force and a scare tactic even without combat having been waged? The barbarians in awe at the ability of the Roman? Roads for instance constructed in a manner as straight as possible, nature and the lay of the land be damned!


I was aware of this bridge as built by the legions under the command of Caesar but had only thought of the structure as less than permanent. More of a pontoon-type river crossing military expedient. This is obviously not true. The same bridge could not be built in ten days using the same tools available the Romans? No! The Amish people of USA alone among moderns would have been able to replicate the feat! Bridge infrastructure embedded to protect pilings and piers from debris floating downstream. Caesar campaigning for only a short time on the far side of the Rhine and then withdrawing in good order, destroying the bridge behind him. Again that bridge primarily [?] a means to intimidate the barbarian German.


The Roman soldier among many things a construction worker. Building of such forts good training and physical development. A person during that time period TWICE as strong pound for pound as a modern human. Persons of the period used to hard physical labor very taxing. Such forts the construction of which having a lot of fore thought aspects of design conducive to a successful defense. During the siege of Alesia Caesar having to fight in two directions simultaneously, moat and wall with towers facing both inward and outward. Such construction also a clear and intimidating  message to the barbarian locals that Rome was here to stay and you had better get used to it.

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K.P.S.

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More lessons learned COIN! Indian style! Counter-insurgency [COIN] Punjab.

Additionally thanks to the South Asian Terrorism Portal [SATP] and the article by K. P. S. Gill.

The Punjab Campaign again! According to K.P.S. Gill:

"The movement [Sikh separatists] for the creation of Khalistan was one of the most virulent terrorist campaigns in the world. Launched in the early 1980s by a group of bigots who discovered their justification in a perversion of the Sikh religious identity, and supported by a gaggle of political opportunists both within the country and abroad, this movement had consumed 21,469 lives before it was comprehensively defeated in 1993."

"Endgame In Punjab: 1988-1993"

DEFICIENCIES AT THE START OF THE COUNTER-INSURGENCY CAMPAIGN AS IDENTIFIED BY GIL!

"Specifically, the problems that required immediate redress, and the steps taken to tackle them – albeit gradually, and in a process that was often frustrated by the lack of means and support from the political leadership – included"

i. "Inadequacy of the police stations to react to terrorist violence on their own"

ii. "Extremely unfavorable ratio of operational to static and non-productive force in manpower utilization"

iii. "Infiltration of the police by elements sympathetic to the terrorist cause, and deep communal divisions within and between various police and para-military units"

iv. "Near-complete absence of systematic intelligence gathering and analysis"

v. "Absence of a coherent strategy of response to terrorist activity"

vi. "The failure of police leadership"

Once more, those security forces [SF's] of India probably the most proficient and adept in the entire world at COIN. Lots of experience with a well thought out methodology, results speaking for themselves.

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Punjab.

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Lessons learned COIN! Indian style! The Punjab counter-insurgency [COIN].

Courtesy the South Asian Terrorism Portal [SATP] and the article by Anant Mathur

As described by the counter-insurgency expert K. P. S. Gill:

"The movement [Sikh separatists] for the creation of Khalistan was one of the most virulent terrorist campaigns in the world. Launched in the early 1980s by a group of bigots who discovered their justification in a perversion of the Sikh religious identity, and supported by a gaggle of political opportunists both within the country and abroad, this movement had consumed 21,469 lives before it was comprehensively defeated in 1993"

"Secrets of COIN Success Lessons from the Punjab Campaign"

"The Punjab campaign stands out among the most  recent, successful and victorious COIN  campaigns in the world. This was largely made possible by a coherent grand strategy and tactical innovations on the ground. This campaign provides interesting lessons that are applicable to all COIN [counter-insurgency]campaigns."

* "First, the importance of promoting an anti-insurgency leader needs greater emphasis than observed in available COIN theories."

* "Secondly, it is essential that Governments must demonstrate the resolve for a political solution of the conflict only from a position of strength."

* "Thirdly, election of insurgents for constitutional posts creates even bigger problems for the COIN campaign."

* Fourthly, COIN campaigns are inherently labour intensive.

* "Fifthly, cutting-edge technology has a limited role to play in COIN campaigns."

* "Sixthly, the insurgency’s sympathizers in the SFs [security forces] should be handled sensitively."

* "Seventh, the COIN campaign should focus on the leaders and ideologues of the insurgency."

* "Eighth, external help to the insurgency must be stifled using all instruments of state power."

* "Lastly, the campaign must develop specific measures of effectiveness to gauge the level of popular support."

The security forces [SF's] of India more experienced and adept at COIN operations beyond that of any other nation on the planet. 

The Punjab Campaign just one example among many!

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Tuesday, February 12, 2019

J & K.

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Lessons learned COIN! Counter-insurgency, Indian style.

As extracted from the Internet article in the nutshell highlights:

"CAMPAIGN IN JAMMU AND KASHMIR"

By MAJ Daniel G. Hodermarsky

"With the majority of U.S. Army operations over the past decade focused on counterinsurgency (COIN) operations, there is value in the study of other contemporary campaigns to increase the Army’s depth of understanding.  India has conducted a COIN campaign in Jammu and Kashmir, also referred to as Kashmir, since 1989 . . . Operating in the context of fighting an insurgency on land disputed between two nuclear powers, India has adapted its operational approach over the conflict’s long history. The long-term commitment to the campaign in Jammu and Kashmir offers the U.S. Army a relevant, contemporary case study on COIN operations"

The U.S. Army can draw four lessons from India’s evolving operational approach.

* "First, India’s actions demonstrate that legitimacy cannot be assumed by the COIN force, but is determined by the populace in question."

* "Second, the campaign demonstrates that the military’s goal should be to work itself into the background, and allow the political factors to retain their primacy. "

* "Third, Kashmir also shows that security under the rule of law requires that security forces are held accountable for their actions, and that this process is as transparent as practical."

* "Finally, the COIN efforts in Kashmir serve as another reminder of the long term commitment required in order to be successful."

The image accompanying this blog entry the flag of the principality of Jammu and Kashmir as it was in 1936 during the British Raj.

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GPS Jam.

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Then and now. "In time of peace prepare for war!"

1. "Norway: GPS jamming during NATO drills in 2018 a big concern"

"COPENHAGEN, Denmark (AP) — The Norwegian Intelligence Service says GPS [Global Positioning System] signal disruption as seen during major NATO drills in Norway last year 'is of particular concern' for the military and 'is also a threat to civil aviation in peacetime.'”

A FOREIGN POWER [UNNAMED] EVIDENTLY HOSTILE TO THE NATO ALLIANCE HAVING SUCCESSFULLY [?] INTERFERED WITH  NAVIGATIONAL SIGNALS [GPS] DURING RECENT WAR GAMES VICINITY NORWAY!!

Furthermore thanks to the Aviationist, currently, right now, as we speak:

2. "Basically, Carrier Strike Group 4 [CSG-4] Is Jamming GPS Across U.S. Southeast Coast"

 "the U.S. Navy’s CSG-4, that 'mentors, trains and assesses Atlantic Fleet combat forces to forward deploy in support and defense of national interests', is currently [Feb. 6 – 10] conducting GPS Interference testing in the East Coast area . . .  GPS could be degraded from Caribbean and Florida north to Pennsylvania west to the eastern Louisiana, while the tests are conducted Feb. 6 – 10, at different hours."

Goals of such deliberate jamming and interference: A. Determine to what degree YOU are able to deny the adversary navigational signals of the GPS variety and do so on-call. B. Determine to what degree YOUR own personnel are able to function without having to resort to navigational signals of the GPS variety.

Does the navy and air force still teach celestial and astral navigation? Does the army still teach map reading and land navigation in the ancient and venerable manner? Compass, pacing, orienteering.

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Monday, February 11, 2019

OMAK.

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OMAK = One Man Army Klein. Artie Klein.

Artie Klein. American war hero from the era of the Second World War [WW2], his superior performance in combat not being justifiably recognized.

KLEIN IN ADDITION IT IS ALLEGED NOT AWARDED HIGH DECORATION BECAUSE HE WAS JEWISH!

Now inter-service rivalry [?] and squabbling [?] may preclude other brave and courageous men from receiving awards as earned and without question? Thanks to Newsweek Magazine and the article by Sean D. Naylor.

"The Navy SEALs Allegedly Left Behind a Man in Afghanistan. Did They Also Try to Block His Medal of Honor?"

Sabotage? You the devoted reader of the blog have to decide this for yourselves! Read the whole article. Slabinski si, Chapman no?

"Some observers are angry at the Navy for even recommending Slabinski for the award, which they claim was part of a campaign to sabotage the Air Force’s effort on behalf of Chapman. Such a campaign would be unprecedented, according to military awards expert Doug Sterner. 'I cannot think of a single instance in which one branch of service opposed a Medal of Honor [MoH] for another one,' he says."

Not so totally unprecedented however:

From WW2 an instance can be found. OMAK. Artie Klein. The Eniwetok operation. Klein behaved very bravely and the consensus was he should have been awarded the MoH. Was denied and with much speculation that Klein was denied the decoration because he was Jewish. NO! The overall performance of the army unit was considered to be poor. So much so that the Marine ground commander [it was a joint Army/Marine/Navy operation with the Marine general in charge of ground forces] and the Navy admiral [overall commander of the combined task force] decided very early to deny the ENTIRE army regiment ANY decoration. Later it was decided to award SOME decorations to the army regiment and Klein got the Bronze star. Those two senior officers denying the army unit awards at least in the minds of those two commanders was justified and on grounds that might seem quite reasonable to some. AND not because Klein refused the MoH on the grounds of his being Jewish!.

Devoted readers now know the rest of the story and are all so much the better for it too!

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Kit.

This is coolbert:

Kit = Whale. Russian heavy-weight torpedo!

Here is what has the U.S. Navy so very worried? CAT a response to Kit but the former now seen to be ineffective!

Super-heavy weight Type 65 torpedo [Kit]. Soviet/Russian oversize [650 mm] torpedo, wake homing and always dangerous.

"The Type 65 is a torpedo manufactured in the Soviet Union/Russia. It was developed for use against US Navy aircraft carrier battle groups, as well as large merchant targets such as supertankers and advanced enemy submarines. It is now typically fitted to newer Russian vessels"

Furthermore:

"Russian officials have stated that a 65-76A modification of this torpedo is responsible for the explosion of the Russian Kursk submarine."

Either a premature thermal battery activation, the hydrogen peroxide fuel self-combustive, a malfunctioning Kit setting off a chain-reaction of catastrophic events leading to the sinking of the Kursk.

EVEN SABOTAGE SUSPECTED BY RUSSIAN INTERNAL SECURITY FORCES!

Kit dangerous even to the Russian submariner!!

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