Friday, June 25, 2010


This is coolbert:

Herewith an example of a reverse amphibious operation that did not go according to plan.

Troops [German and Romanian] attempting to conduct a delaying action, retreating from an area [Crimea], doing so under fire, evacuation by sea

The German Seventeenth Army, occupying Festung Crimea, isolated, their line of retreat cut-off, sea-borne evacuation the only way out of an impossible situation.

"the 17th Army . . . made up of 3 German divisions and the Romanian Cavalry Corps (6th and 9th Cavalry, 10th and 19th Infantry Divisions) and Mountain Corps (1st, 2nd and 3rd Mountain Divisions)"

About 220,000 men total, of which approximately 60,000 were Romanian.

Germany occupied Crimea, 1943-1944, declared a "fortress" [Festung] by Hitler, NO retreat allowed. Hitler wanting to deny the Crimea as a point from which it would be possible for Soviet long-ranger bomber aircraft to attack the Ploesti oil fields. From a "fortress" NO retreat was allowed without specific permission directly from Hitler.

By 1944 the situation for the 17th Army in the Festung had become untenable, the order to evacuate being given. An evacuation by sea being the only recourse. An evacuation being conducted UNDER FIRE THE ENTIRE TIME!! An evacuation the plan of which was called "Adler" [Eagle] by the German, Operation 60,000 by the Romanian. German Kriegsmarine and the Romanian Navy doing yeoman work, again, all the while under fire!

An evacuation carried out in two stages:

" [1] 12 April and 5 May and, [2] the most dramatic, between 6 and 13 May"

1. "during the first phase of the operation, between 14 and 27 April 1944, 73,058 people left Crimea by sea":

* "20,779 Romanians, of which 2,296 wounded"
* "28,394 Germans, in care 4.995 wounded"
* "723 Slovaks"
* "15,055 Russian volunteers"
* "2,559 POWs"
* "3,748 civilians"

Of these about 1,5% died during the crossing."

NO mention is made of impedimenta brought along. Gear needed to fight again as a cohesive force. Final figures indicate equipment to some degree brought along, but how much and of what type not clear.

2. "In this second phase of the evacuation 47,825 de men were transported by sea to Constanta:

* "15,078 Romanians"
* "28,992 Germans"
* "3,755 Soviets (volunteers, POWs and civilians)"

"About 10,000 men were lost during the crossing , of which some 4,000 were Romanians. "

Losses much more considerable during the second phase of the evacuation, about 20-25 %!

Totals in the aftermath of Festung Crimea capitulation [1944] were:

"In total, between 14 April – 13 May 1944, 120,853 men and 22,548 tone of cargo were evacuated by sea from Crimea":

* "36.557 Romanians, of which 4,262 wounded"
* "58,486 Germans, of which 12,027 wounded"
* "723 Slovaks"
* "15,391 Soviet volunteers"
* "2.581 POWs"
* "7.115 civilians"

Slightly more than HALF of the 17th Army were evacuated. The remainder of the "Fortress" command going into Soviet captivity.

"It is obvious that an earlier evacuation would have saved more of the 220,000 men that the 17th Army had in April 1944"

Amphibious operations are conceded to the MOST DIFFICULT OF ALL MILITARY MANEUVERS!! And how much MORE difficult is a reverse amphibious operation, WHILE UNDER FIRE!!


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