"During a time of peace prepare for war!" - - Cicero.
Understand too this not Gladio! Private rifleman and marksmanship organizations but NOT Gladio.
Polish private and autonomous groups teaching the basics of rifle marksmanship and rudimentary military skills. Private and autonomous groups that during a time of war and invasion could very well form the nucleus of a guerrilla/partisan/insurgent force.
1. "Eyeing Russia nervously, Poles enroll in volunteer militias"
"Spurred by the war in Ukraine, growing numbers of Poles are joining volunteer paramilitary groups to get basic military training and prepare to defend their homeland from what some see as a looming Russian invasion."
. . . .
"There are an estimated 120 such groups in Poland, with total membership around 10,000. Eight hundred members gathered on Friday in Warsaw at a meeting organized by the Defense Ministry, the first time they have been given official recognition."
2. "Youths march through Warsaw on Soviet invasion anniversary"
"Warsaw (AFP) - Around 5,000 Polish youths wearing military uniform and carrying Kalashnikov replicas marched through Warsaw Thursday, pledging to come to their country's aid if necessary amid concern over Russian activity in neighbouring Ukraine."
Rifleman and marksmanship clubs with a military orientation having a long history in Poland.
These were the "Riflemen's Association".
Związek Strzelecki 'Strzelec' ('Rifleman') was a Polish paramilitary cultural and educational organization created in 1910 in Lwów . . . and revived in Poland in 1991.
"An important part of the Association's mission was training young Poles in military skills. Before World War I, the Riflemen's Association provided military training to over 8,000 people, and its trainees subsequently formed an important part of the Polish Legions in World War I."
And before the riflemen were the francs-de-tireurs.
French civilians in the aftermath of the Franco-Prussian war organizing themselves into private marksmanship clubs. Marksmen whose ability with the long-gun allowing them to function as the sniper, the irregular/guerrilla/partisan/insurgent in time of war and invasion by the foreign power.
"Francs-tireurs . . . was a term for irregular military applied to formations deployed by France during the early stages of the Franco-Prussian War (1870–71)"
"It is sometimes used to refer more generally to guerrilla fighters who operate outside the laws of war"
Again, NONE of this is Gladio. Conspiracy theorists and advocates rest easy!!