Here from the latest issue of World War II magazine some instances of conscientious objectors [CO's] during the period of World War Two [WW2] seeking alternative civilian service.
CO's personally opposed to military duty even during the most perilous of times, citing religious or philosophical reasons for their refusal to serve in the traditional manner.
Alternative service in some cases very hazardous!
1. Wilderness firefighters.
Smokejumpers to be exact. CO trained to fight forest fires in the western part of the United States AND having to parachute into the afflicted area to do so.
"220 CO smokejumpers who spurned the front lines went into the fire line"
MEN ESCHEWING MILITARY SERVICE BUT QUITE WILLING TO JUMP OUT OF A PERFECTLY GOOD AIRPLANE AND FIGHT A FOREST FIRE UPON LANDING..
Personnel fighting forest fires in the western part of the United States having an experience about as close to mortal physical combat on the battlefield without there being an adversary shooting at you. Dangerous nonetheless!
2. The Minnesota Starvation Experiment.
"36 participants . . . picked . . . from among 200 CO volunteers lived on about 1,500 calories a day and walked 45 miles a week. Once a man shed a quarter of his weight, he began to receive calibrated nutrition.
I DON'T THINK THIS SORT OF EXPERIMENTATION WOULD BE ALLOWED TODAY!!
That objective of the experiment to: A. Determine in a scientific and controlled manner what prolonged hunger and starvation can do to the body of a grown adult. B. Determine in a scientific and controlled manner how to rehabilitate a person that has suffered from prolonged hunger and starvation. That intake of food itself much less than desired especially for those persons prisoners of the Japanese, caloric and nutritional deficiency exacerbated by tropical disease in many cases.