"their brutal tactics, 'ensured the submission of the people [but] was not likely to engender loyalty'”.
Military action during the French invasion of Mexico I am only in a very vague manner familiar with.
Mexican Imperial Army = those military loyal to and commanded by Maximilian.
Thanks to the Internet web site "The Mad Monarchist" an article describing the means and methods of that dedicated Mexican Imperial Army counter-insurgency unit referred to as "The Red Devils".
"Monarchist Military: The Red Devils"
"During the period of the French intervention and [the] Second Mexican Empire of all the units of the Mexican Imperial Army none were so feared or hated by the republican revolutionary forces as the contra-guerrillas commanded by the notorious Colonel Charles Dupin. Operating mostly in north and northeast Mexico the contra-guerrillas were formed in October of 1862 as a modest force of two cavalry squadrons. They proved so ruthlessly effective however and became such an elite force (with better pay, better food but riskier service) that by the summer of 1864 the force had grown to 850 soldiers organized into the two cavalry squadrons plus four infantry companies and a two gun mountain artillery battery. Today it is common to portray the contras as a French force but, in fact, they were part of the Imperial Mexican Army and, despite being commanded by a French officer, most in the French army viewed the contras with considerable distaste."
"However . . . harsh and even ruthless in their methods Colonel Dupin and his contras were frighteningly effective. Dupin has been described as savage and brilliant, courageous and brutal. The contras came from an extremely diverse background; mercenaries, regular soldiers of various nationalities, frontier ruffians and even a few Americans [deserters?] after the civil war there. Discipline was harsh for such a rowdy bunch but they had to be for the type of war they were fighting. The contras essentially employed the same brutal tactics used by the republican bandits against them. The fighting on the northern frontier was particularly brutal and both sides could be equally merciless. Dupin himself purposely encouraged the popular image of himself and his contras as invincible and bloodthirsty, employing a little wild-west type psychological warfare that ensured they were feared all across northern Mexico."
SUBMISSION BUT NOT LOYALTY!
See the entire Mad Monarchist archive regarding the counter-guerrilla forces of the Mexican Imperial Army.
I highly recommend the Internet web site "The Mad Monarchist" without qualification or reservation. Very well done whether you agree or disagree.