From several prior blog entries we have more on the Vera Cruz episode, Douglas MacArthur comporting himself with extraordinary bravery and displaying courage of the type as would deserve the awarding of the Medal of Honor [MoH] but denied.
The MoH being awarded to fifty-six recipients in the aftermath of the Vera Cruz Expedition , that denial of MacArthur at least understood as having a basis in the regulations as were pertinent at the time.
Regulations governing the decoration [MoH] requiting:
* "the oral or written testimony of at least two eyewitnesses to the action."
Eyewitnesses ONLY those persons Mexican mercenary elements in the pay of MacArthur, that reconnaissance mission consisting except for the presence of MacArthur NOT Americans or persons deemed as disinterested parties.
This is NOT to say and also acknowledged by authorities that the account as given MacArthur was falsified or exaggerated but that necessity for independent and unbiased verification from eyewitnesses was lacking!
It can too be suggested that this independent reconnaissance mission on the initiative of MacArthur without the consent or even the knowledge of the American commander on the ground [Funston] actually imperiled the entire expeditionary force, movement beyond the established perimeter of the harbor at Vera Cruz forbidden, further action against Mexican forces of whatever persuasion not allowed without further commands or directives as issued by President Wilson and the War Department in D.C.
MacArthur authorized to conduct intelligence and reconnaissance at this discretion with his line of reporting direct to the General Staff in Washington BUT the assumption being that such missions were to be more discrete and within guidelines?
Douglas MacArthur too in the aftermath of his denial of high decoration [he did receive a Distinguished Service medal] in a fit of petulance making his thoughts publicly known and not doing himself any favors.